European oak (Quercus robur) – grows in all of Europe and North Caucasus.
Heartwood of oak is light brown, sapwood is white to creamy white. Oak has open grain with rays, occasional swirls and burls. Plain sawn oak boards have a flared grain appearance, while quarter sawn oak has a flake pattern (sometimes called tiger rays).
Quarter sawn oak has excellent dimensional stability. Oak is very strong and durable, measuring 1360 on the Janka scale. Tannic acid in the wood protects it from insects and fungal attacks.
Oak has always been a very popular choice for hardwood flooring. Today, oak flooring is available in nearly all types, styles and sizes. Wide, quarter sawn boards of white oak have been extremely prized since the Middle Ages, when oak was used in designing the interior of prestigious buildings, flooring and fine furniture. As a symbol of elegance, strength and endurance, oak has been chosen as a national tree of many countries.